Laparoscopic liver resection: what are we doing? Where are we going?
Laparoscopic liver resection (LLR) continues to evolve to improve short- and long-term outcomes of patients needing hepatectomy. Two international consensus meetings held in 2008 (Louisville, KY, USA) and 2014 (Morioka, Japan) have significantly contributed to advance the technical aspects of LLR and its global dissemination (1,2). LLR has now reached stage 3, the “Assessment” stage of innovation, in the IDEAL framework that defines the stepwise progression of novel surgical practice (3-5). Recently, Cho et al. have published practical guidelines for performing LLR (6). This editorial aims to summarize the guidelines and address unsolved questions related to LLR.